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A Privilege escalation attack is defined as a cyberattack to gain illicit access of elevated rights, or privileges beyond what is entitled for a user. This attack can involve an external threat actor or an insider. Privilege escalation is a key stage of the cyberattack chain and typically involves the exploitation of a privilege escalation vulnerability, such as a system bug, misconfiguration, or inadequate access controls. In this blog, I will explain how privilege escalation works, the key attack vectors involved with privilege escalation, and the critical privileged access security controls you can implement to prevent or mitigate it.
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Every local, interactive session or remote access session represents some form of privileged access. This encompasses everything from guest privileges allowing local logon only, to administrator or root privileges for a remote session and potentially complete system control. Therefore, every account that interacts with a system has some privileges assigned.
Malware, which includes viruses, spyware, worms, adware, ransomware, etc., refers to any class of undesirable or unauthorized software designed to have malicious intent on a resource. The intent can range from surveillance, data exfiltration, disruption, command and control, denial of service, to extortion. Malware provides a vehicle for attackers to instrument cybercriminal activity.
However, credential exploitation can happen on any operating system and device. If credentials are exposed using any of the techniques we have discussed, then a privileged escalation can occur using any of the additional methods available to threat actor. No asset, application, or resource is immune to a credential-based attack. And none of them are immune from privileged escalation. By adopting technologies like Single Sign On (SSO) and Multi-Factor Authentication (MFA), organizations can mitigate the risk. When this is combined with good cybersecurity hygiene like segmentation, privileged access management (PAM), patch management, vulnerability management, and change control, a strong defense- in-depth emerges. But remember none of these security practices is 100% effective.
Privileged escalation attack vectors arguably represent the worst of all cyber threats because the attacker can become the administrator and owner of all the information technology resources within your company. And with this power, all your data, assets, applications, and resources potentially can fall under some form of foreign control.
Password Hacking: A threat actor can crack or steal a password using several techniques. These attacks can lead to administrator privileges if the account has been granted these rights. This represents another reason to limit the number of administrator accounts in an environment and enforce least privilege. If the account is an administrator, the threat actor can easily circumvent other security controls, achieve lateral movement, and opportunistically attempt to crack other privileged account passwords.
Privilege escalation can be defined as an attack that involves gaining illicit access of elevated rights, or privileges, beyond what is intended or entitled for a user. This attack can involve an external threat actor or an insider. Privilege escalation is a key stage of the cyberattack chain and typically involves the exploitation of a privilege escalation vulnerability, such as a system bug, misconfiguration, or inadequate access controls.
While the CIA uses VPN connections to hide traffic to and from command-and-control servers, cybercriminals will use these devices to proxy malicious traffic to avoid detection. In fact, networks of these infected routers and IoT devices are sold as black market proxies for hiding illegal activity like credit card theft, darknet transactions, and DDoS attacks. By failing to secure your router, you could be signing up to relay traffic for criminal hacking enterprises.
While simply trying the default password is the first step towards router exploitation, more advanced frameworks exist even for beginners. Why would a beginner want to exploit a router? On a local level, if you fully compromise the router, you will have complete access to the network. This allows you to control and route the target's internet experience to wherever or whatever you want or forward ports for remote access.
Shared service accounts typically provide an elevated level of access to a system. System-level accounts, such as root and Administrator, provide complete control over a system. This makes these types of accounts highly susceptible to malicious activity. As a result, a more lengthy and complex password should be implemented. System-level and shared service accounts are typically critical to the operation of a system or application. Because of this, these passwords are often known by more than one administrator. Passwords should be changed anytime someone with knowledge of the password changes job responsibilities or terminates employment. Use of accounts such as root and Administrator should also be limited as much as possible. Alternatives should be explored such as using sudo in place of root and creating unique accounts for Windows administration instead of using default accounts.