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Mark Stepanov
Mark Stepanov

Hooked: How Nir Eyal Teaches You to Build Products that Influence User Behavior (MOBI Version)


Hooked: How to Build Habit-Forming Products (Nir Eyal) MOBI




Have you ever wondered why some products capture your attention while others flop? Why do you check your email, Facebook, or Twitter several times a day? Why do you keep using apps like Netflix, Spotify, or Instagram even when you have other things to do?




Hooked How To Build Habit-Forming Products (Nir Eyal) MOBI



If you want to learn how successful companies create products that people can't put down, then you should read Hooked: How to Build Habit-Forming Products by Nir Eyal. In this book, Eyal reveals the secret behind how products like Facebook, Twitter, Pinterest, and the Bible App hook us into using them repeatedly without depending on costly advertising or aggressive messaging.


Introduction




In today's world, there are thousands of products competing for our attention. But only a few of them manage to create loyal users who use them regularly. These products are called habit-forming products. They are products that form a part of our daily routines and lifestyles. They are products that we use without thinking, almost automatically.


But how do these products achieve this feat? How do they hook us into using them over and over again? And more importantly, how can you create your own habit-forming product?


In this book, Nir Eyal answers these questions by explaining the Hook Model - a four-step process that successful companies use to subtly influence customer behavior. By understanding how the Hook Model works, you can learn how to design products that people love and use frequently.


What is Hooked and why you should read it




Hooked is a book that teaches you how to build habit-forming products. It is based on Eyal's years of research, consulting, and practical experience as a start-up founder and investor. He wrote the book he wished had been available to him when he was creating his own products - not abstract theory, but a how-to guide for building better products.


Hooked is written for product managers, designers, marketers, start-up founders, and anyone who seeks to understand how products influence our behavior. Whether you want to create a new product or improve an existing one, this book will help you learn how to:



  • Identify the needs and pain points of your target users



  • Create a product that provides a solution to those needs and pain points



  • Design a product that hooks users into using it repeatedly without depending on external triggers



  • Test and iterate your product to optimize user engagement and retention



  • Evaluate the ethical and moral implications of your product and its impact on society



What are habit-forming products and how they work




A habit is a behavior that is done with little or no conscious thought. Habits are formed through repeated exposure to a stimulus that triggers a response that rewards the user. For example, when you hear your phone ring, you pick it up (stimulus-response-reward). Over time, this behavior becomes automatic and you do it without thinking.


A habit-forming product is a product that leverages this mechanism to create user habits. It is a product that users come to depend on and use frequently, sometimes multiple times a day. For example, Facebook, Twitter, Pinterest, and the Bible App are all habit-forming products. They provide users with a trigger, an action, a variable reward, and an investment that create a loop of repeated use.


The Hook Model is a framework that describes how habit-forming products work. It consists of four steps: trigger, action, variable reward, and investment. Each step is designed to connect the user's problem with the product's solution, and to increase the user's engagement and loyalty over time.


The Hook Model: A four-step process for creating addictive products




The Hook Model is a four-step process that successful companies use to create products that hook users into using them repeatedly. The four steps are:



  • Trigger: The cue that sparks the user's action



  • Action: The simple behavior that the user performs in anticipation of a reward



  • Variable Reward: The unpredictable feedback that satisfies the user's need



  • Investment: The effort that the user puts into the product to increase its value



Each step of the Hook Model is explained in detail below.


Trigger: The cue that sparks the user's action




A trigger is anything that prompts the user to take action. Triggers can be external or internal.


External triggers: The stimuli that prompt the user to act




External triggers are cues in the environment that tell the user what to do next. They can be explicit or implicit.


Explicit triggers are clear and direct instructions that tell the user what action to take. For example, a button that says "Buy Now", an email that says "Click Here", or a notification that says "You have a new message". Explicit triggers are effective when the user is motivated and able to perform the action.


Implicit triggers are subtle hints or associations that suggest an action without explicitly stating it. For example, a logo that reminds the user of a brand, a color that evokes an emotion, or a sound that signals an event. Implicit triggers are effective when the user has formed a strong habit and can act without much thought.


Internal triggers: The emotions that drive the user's behavior




Internal triggers are cues within the user's mind that motivate them to act. They are usually negative emotions or pain points that the user wants to escape or resolve. For example, boredom, loneliness, frustration, curiosity, or fear. Internal triggers are powerful because they create a strong urge to act.


The goal of habit-forming products is to create associations between internal triggers and their solutions. For example, when you feel bored, you check Facebook; when you feel lonely, you text your friends; when you feel curious, you search on Google; when you feel afraid, you check the news. Over time, these associations become automatic and you use these products without thinking.


Action: The simple behavior that the user performs in anticipation of a reward




An action is the simple behavior that the user performs in response to a trigger. It is usually a single tap, click, swipe, or scroll. The action should be easy and quick to perform, and should lead to an immediate reward.


The Fogg Behavior Model: How motivation, ability, and trigger influence action




How to increase user motivation and ability




Motivation is the user's desire to perform an action. It is influenced by various factors, such as pleasure, pain, hope, fear, social acceptance, or social rejection. To increase user motivation, you can use techniques such as:



  • Highlighting the benefits of using your product and the costs of not using it



  • Creating a sense of urgency or scarcity to encourage action



  • Leveraging social proof and testimonials to build trust and credibility



  • Using gamification and rewards to make the action fun and rewarding



  • Appealing to the user's emotions and values to create a connection



Ability is the user's capability to perform an action. It is influenced by various factors, such as time, money, physical effort, mental effort, social deviance, or non-routine. To increase user ability, you can use techniques such as:



  • Simplifying the user interface and reducing the number of steps required to perform the action



  • Providing clear and concise instructions and feedback to guide the user through the action



  • Offering multiple options and channels to perform the action



  • Using defaults and pre-filled forms to reduce the user's cognitive load



  • Providing help and support to overcome any obstacles or challenges



Variable Reward: The unpredictable feedback that satisfies the user's need




A variable reward is the unpredictable feedback that satisfies the user's need after performing an action. It is usually a positive outcome that fulfills one or more of the user's basic needs, such as social belonging, mastery, or self-expression. Variable rewards are powerful because they create a sense of curiosity, excitement, and anticipation that keeps the user hooked.


The three types of variable rewards: Tribe, hunt, and self




The three types of variable rewards are tribe, hunt, and self. They correspond to the three core human needs: social belonging, resources, and self-actualization.


Tribe rewards are rewards that satisfy the user's need for social belonging. They are rewards that come from other people, such as likes, comments, shares, followers, or messages. Tribe rewards make the user feel connected, validated, and accepted by others.


Hunt rewards are rewards that satisfy the user's need for resources. They are rewards that come from acquiring something valuable, such as money, information, or goods. Hunt rewards make the user feel accomplished, successful, and smart.


Self rewards are rewards that satisfy the user's need for self-actualization. They are rewards that come from completing a challenge, learning a skill, or expressing oneself. Self rewards make the user feel competent, creative, and proud.


How to design variable rewards that match the user's needs




To design variable rewards that match the user's needs, you need to understand what your users are looking for when they use your product. You need to identify their internal triggers and provide them with rewards that address those triggers. You also need to vary the type and frequency of rewards to keep them interesting and surprising.


Some tips for designing variable rewards are:



  • Use a mix of tribe, hunt, and self rewards to appeal to different user needs and preferences



  • Use data and feedback to tailor rewards to each user's behavior and profile



  • Use randomness and unpredictability to create a sense of mystery and discovery



  • Use scarcity and exclusivity to create a sense of value and status



  • Use loops and streaks to create a sense of progress and achievement



Investment: The effort that the user puts into the product to increase its value




content, or social capital. The investment should be easy and rewarding to perform, and should lead to future triggers and actions.


The IKEA effect: How invested labor enhances product attachment




The IKEA effect is a phenomenon that describes how people value products more when they have invested effort into creating or assembling them. For example, people tend to like their IKEA furniture more than ready-made furniture because they have spent time and energy putting it together.


The IKEA effect applies to habit-forming products as well. When users invest effort into a product, they become more attached to it and more likely to use it again. For example, when users create a profile, upload a photo, customize a setting, or invite a friend, they are investing effort into the product and increasing its value for themselves or for others.


How to increase user investment and loyalty




To increase user investment and loyalty, you need to design your product in a way that encourages users to make small but meaningful contributions that enhance their experience or benefit others. You also need to provide feedback and rewards that acknowledge and appreciate their investment. You also need to leverage their investment to create future triggers and actions that keep them hooked.


Some tips for increasing user investment and loyalty are:



  • Ask for user input or feedback that improves the product or helps other users



  • Allow users to customize or personalize the product to suit their preferences or needs



  • Encourage users to create or share content that showcases their skills or personality



  • Incentivize users to invite or refer others to join or use the product



  • Remind users of their past investment and how it has paid off



How to apply the Hook Model ethically and responsibly




The Hook Model is a powerful tool for creating products that people love and use frequently. However, it also comes with a great responsibility. As a product creator, you have the ability to influence user behavior and affect their lives. Therefore, you need to apply the Hook Model ethically and responsibly.


The morality of manipulation: When is it right to influence user behavior




Manipulation is the act of influencing someone's behavior in a way that benefits you at their expense. Manipulation is unethical and immoral because it harms the user and violates their autonomy and dignity.


Influence is the act of influencing someone's behavior in a way that benefits both you and them. Influence is ethical and moral because it helps the user and respects their agency and well-being.


The difference between manipulation and influence lies in your intention and alignment. Your intention is your reason for creating a habit-forming product. Your alignment is your degree of congruence with the user's best interest.


If your intention is to help the user achieve their goals or solve their problems, and your alignment is high with the user's best interest, then you are influencing them in a positive way. For example, if you create a product that helps users exercise more, eat healthier, or learn new skills, then you are influencing them for good.


If your intention is to exploit the user for your own gain or benefit, and your alignment is low with the user's best interest, then you are manipulating them in a negative way. For example, if you create a product that tricks users into spending more money, wasting more time, or harming themselves or others, then you are manipulating them for evil.


The habit test: A framework for evaluating your product's potential for good or evil




The habit test is a framework developed by Nir Eyal that helps you evaluate your product's potential for good or evil. It consists of three questions that you should ask yourself before creating a habit-forming product:



  • Does your product help users achieve their goals or solve their problems?



  • Does your product align with the user's best interest?



  • Would you use your product yourself or recommend it to someone you care about?



If you answer yes to all three questions, then you are likely creating a product that influences users in a positive way. If you answer no to any of these questions, then you are likely creating a product that manipulates users in a negative way.


The habit test is not a definitive test, but rather a guideline that helps you reflect on your ethical and moral responsibility as a product creator. You should always be honest and transparent with yourself and your users about the potential impact of your product on their lives.


Conclusion




In this article, you learned how to build habit-forming products using the Hook Model. You learned what habit-forming products are and how they work. You learned the four steps of the Hook Model: trigger, action, variable reward, and investment. You learned how to design each step to create products that hook users into using them repeatedly. You also learned how to apply the Hook Model ethically and responsibly.


By following the Hook Model, you can create products that people love and use frequently. You can create products that help users achieve their goals or solve their problems. You can create products that align with the user's best interest. You can create products that you would use yourself or recommend to someone you care about.


Summary of the main points and takeaways from the book




Here are the main points and takeaways from the book Hooked: How to Build Habit-Forming Products by Nir Eyal:



  • Habit-forming products are products that hook users into using them repeatedly without depending on external triggers.



  • The Hook Model is a four-step process that successful companies use to create habit-forming products. The four steps are: trigger, action, variable reward, and investment.



  • A trigger is anything that prompts the user to take action. Triggers can be external or internal.



  • An action is the simple behavior that the user performs in response to a trigger. It is influenced by motivation, ability, and trigger.



  • A variable reward is the unpredictable feedback that satisfies the user's need after performing an action. It can be tribe, hunt, or self.



  • An investment is the effort that the user puts into the product after receiving a reward. It increases the value of the product for the user or for others.



  • The Hook Model should be applied ethically and responsibly. You should always consider your intention and alignment with the user's best interest.



How to get the book in MOBI format




If you want to get the book Hooked: How to Build Habit-Forming Products by Nir Eyal in MOBI format, you can follow these steps:



  • Go to this link and download the book in PDF or EPUB format.



  • Go to this link and upload the file you downloaded in step 1.



  • Select MOBI as the output format and click on "Start conversion".



  • Download the converted file and enjoy reading it on your Kindle or other devices that support MOBI format.



I hope you enjoyed this article and found it useful. If you have any questions or feedback, please let me know in the comments below. Thank you for reading!


Frequently Asked Questions




Here are some frequently asked questions about Hooked: How to Build Habit-Forming Products by Nir Eyal:



  • What is an example of a habit-forming product?



An example of a habit-forming product is Facebook. Facebook hooks users into using it repeatedly by providing them with external triggers (notifications, emails, icons), actions (clicking, scrolling, liking), variable rewards (social feedback, information, entertainment), and investments (profile, photos, friends).


  • What is the difference between a habit and an addiction?



A habit is a behavior that is done with little or no conscious thought. An addiction is a behavior that is done compulsively and harmfully. A habit becomes an addiction when it interferes with other aspects of life, such as health, relationships, or work.


  • How can I break a bad habit or avoid forming one?



To break a bad habit or avoid forming one, you need to identify and eliminate or reduce the triggers, actions, rewards, and investments that reinforce it. You also need to replace it with a healthier or more productive habit that provides similar or better benefits.


  • How can I apply the Hook Model to my own product?



To apply the Hook Model to your own product, you need to follow these steps:


  • Identify your target users and their needs or pain points



those needs or pain points


  • Design a trigger that prompts the user to use your product



  • Design an action that is easy and rewarding for the user to perform



  • Design a variable reward that satisfies the user's need and creates curiosity



  • Design an investment that increases the value of your product for the user or for others



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